The Characteristics of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery
A lithium iron phosphate battery is a lithium ion battery that uses lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) as the positive electrode and carbon as the negative electrode. The rated voltage of the single cell is 3.2V. The positive electrode of the LiFePO4 battery uses LiFePO4 material with an olivine structure. And it is connected to the positive electrode by an aluminum foil. The negative electrode is composed of carbon (graphite), and the copper foil connects to the negative electrode. In the middle, the polymer separator separates the positive and negative electrodes. Lithium iron phosphate battery has the advantages of high working voltage, high energy density, long cycle life, good safety performance, environmental protection, no pollution, maintenance-free, low self-discharge rate, and no memory effect. Lithium iron phosphate battery supports expansion and can store large-scale electric energy after forming an energy storage system. The demand for lithium iron phosphate batteries in the market is increasing rapidly, and the supply is in short supply.
The Significance lithium ion battery pack recycling
- Cobalt, lithium, and copper in waste lithium ion batteries are all valuable resources and have high recycling value. The lithium ion battery industry is developing rapidly, and the scientific recycling of waste lithium batteries is in line with the development needs of society.
- The recycling process of lithium ion cells has slowed down the price increase of lithium batteries due to the shortage of raw materials. The metal materials of lithium batteries required for manufacture are in short supply, and the prices of materials continue to rise. The scientific recycling of lithium batteries effectively reduces the current manufacturing cost. Copper, aluminum, lithium, etc. contained in waste lithium batteries can alleviate the supply shortage, reduce costs, and stabilize prices.
- Use scientific methods to deal with waste lithium batteries,produce rich benefits, and protect our environment. Generally speaking, the profit of processing one-ton used batteries is about RMB 5,000, effectively alleviating the increasing problems of resource shortage and environmental pollution.
- The use of lithium batteries is increasing rapidly, and exhaust gas consumption keeps rising. In the face of such a huge market size in the future, it is necessary and urgent to study the research on lithium battery recyclingfrom the perspective of resource conservation and economy. Recycling aluminum, iron, and lithium material in waste lithium ion batteries do not produce secondary pollution and can bring certain economic benefits.
Scientific lithium ion battery recycling
1>Lithium battery dry recycling technology
The dry recycling technology first separates battery casings, electrode sheets, and separators by mechanical sorting. The electrode sheet is dealt with by high-temperature incineration. The organic binder is removed by calcination, and the lithium iron phosphate powder is separated from the aluminum foil to obtain a lithium iron phosphate material.
2>Lithium battery wet recycling technology
The wet recycling technology mainly uses an acid-base solution to dissolve the metal ions in the lithium iron battery. The metal ions dissolved in the solution are further extracted by means of precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, etc. The process of wet recovery is complex, but the metal recovery rate is high. And in the wet recycling process, the energy consumption is low, the material recovery rate reaches 99%, and the environmental protection standard is met. The wet recycling technology realizes the profit transformation of waste lithium batteries, with large processing capacity, high economic benefits, and low maintenance costs. It is a relatively extensive separation and recovery method.
3>Lithium battery biological recycling technology
The bioleaching recovery technology mainly uses the principle of microbial leaching. Converts valuable components into soluble compounds and selectively dissolves them. Then, the valuable metals and impurities in the solution are separated. Finally, valuable metals such as lithium and iron can recover. However, the current biological recycling technology has only carried out relevant research on the metal recovery of lithium phosphate batteries, and there is little recycling research on waste LiFePO4 battery packs.
Lithium ion battery recycling through scientific processes, which are green and low-carbon, environmentally friendly and energy-saving, easy to industrialize, and can generate good market value.
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